AR/VR Back

  • AI - AR Integration for Manufacturing Assembly Process, Collins Aerospace Systems, USA (INR 70.8L, 2022-2023)
  • Holoportation and UI/UX Design for Metaverse, Siemens, Germany (INR 76.8L, 2022-2027)
  • Interactive AR/VR digital twin for navigation and monitoring of office spaces, British Telecom (INR 45L, 2020-2022), part of BTIRC
  • Human Factor Engineering Studies in Gaganyaan Program, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO, INR 37.66L, 2021-23)
  • AR/VR and UI/UX Design Lab for HAL-IISc Skill Development Centre, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, (INR 42L, 2021-2022)
  • Study Project on Advanced HMI Systems, Aeronautical Development Agency, MoD, India (INR 50.5L, 2019-2020)

Our research on Augmented, Mixed and Virtual Reality is investigating both human factors as well as new applications related to Digital Twin. We are undertaking detailed analysis on rendering of visual variables in 3D display and analysing ocular and EEG parameters while users are undertaking pointing and selection tasks in eXtended Reality (XR). We are working with Aerospace agencies and industries to develop digital twins of aircraft and spacecraft cockpits, office spaces inside building and integrating computer vision modules with AR/VR systems. We also undertake short course on AR/VR systems for both students and industry professionals.

Main Results

  • We reported a speed - accuracy trade-off while users interpret 3D charts in 2D and 3D rendering media.
  • We developed experimental set up to record ocular and EEG parameters while users undertake tasks in AR/MR/VR media.
  • We developed and validated a new way of generating synthetic image and video based data for training deep learning models like Convolutional Neural Networks using VR digital twins which offers more customization than Generative Adversial Network (GAN) and Variable Auto Encoders (VAE).

Video Demonstrations


  • A Mukhopadhyay, NR Talwar, Himanshu V, GS Rajshekar Reddy, S Srivastava, A Pena-Rios & P Biswas, VR digital twin of office space with computer vision-based estimation of room occupancy and power consumption. Discovery Analytics 2(6) 2024, Springer
  • S. Saren, A. Mukhopadhyay, D. Ghose, P. Biswas, Comparing alternative modalities in the context of multimodal human–robot interaction, Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces 2023, Springer
  • S. Raj, LRD Murthy, T Adhithiyan, A. Chakrabarti, P. Biswas, Mixed Reality and Deep Learning based System for Assisting Assembly Process, Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces 2023, Springer
  • AMC Rao, S. Raj, AK Shah, Harshitha BR, NR Talwar, VK Sharma, Sanjana M, H Vishvakarma, Development and comparison studies of XR interfaces for path definition in remote welding scenarios, Multimedia Tools and Applications 2023, Springer
  • A Hebbar, AK Shah, S Vinod, A Pashilkar, P Biswas (2023). Cognitive load estimation in VR flight simulator. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 15(3)
  • M Mitra, P Pati, VK Sharma, S Raj, PP Chakrabarti, P Biswas, Comparison of Target Prediction in VR and MR using Inverse Reinforcement Learning, ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 23)
  • A Mukhopadhyay, VK Sharma, PG Tatyarao, AK Shah, AMC Rao, PR Subin, P Biswas, A comparison study between XR interfaces for driver assistance in take over request, Transportation Engineering (11),2023,100159, Elsevier, ISSN 2666-691X,
  • S Arjun, A Hebbar, S Vinod and P Biswas, VR Cognitive Load Dashboard for Flight Simulator, ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA) 2022
  • A. Mukhopadhyay, GS Rajshekar Reddy, S. Ghosh, P. Biswas, Validating Social Distancing through Deep Learning and VR-Based Digital Twins, ACM VRST 2021
  • A. Mukhopadhyay, GS Rajshekar Reddy, KPS Saluja, S. Ghosh, A. PeƱa-Rios, G. K. Gopal, P. Biswas, A Virtual Reality-Based Digital Twin of Office Spaces with Social Distance Measurement Feature, Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware, Elsevier
  • S. Arjun, GS Rajshekar, A. Mukhopadhyay, S. Vinod and P. Biswas, Evaluating Visual Variables in a Virtual Reality Environment, British HCI 2021
  • A. Mukhopadhyay, GS Rajshekar Reddy, I. Mukherjee, G. K. Gopal, A. PeƱa-Rios, P. Biswas, Generating Synthetic Data for Deep Learning using VR Digital Twin, 3rd International Conference on Virtual Reality and Image Processing (VRIP 2021)