Our present research is investigating new modalities of interaction and in particular eye gaze controlled interfaces. We are developing new target prediction and multimodal fusion algorithms to improve accuracy and response times of gaze controlled interfaces. We are investigating automotive and military aviation environments and trying to improve human machine interaction for secondary mission control tasks. In parallel, we are working on detecting usersí cognitive load by analysing their ocular parameters using low cost off-the shelf eye gaze trackers.
In automotive domain, we are working on both facilitating HMI while operating a dashboard and on developing technology to automatically detect distraction of drivers. Our patent on Multimodal Gaze Controlled Projected Dasboard proposes a Head Up Display that projects the dashboard display on windscreen, which does not require drivers taking off eyes from road while undertaking secondary tasks and the display can itself be operated using eye gaze and finger movement of drivers. Our driver distraction detection system is investigating different sensors to track head and eye gaze movements and relating those to complexity of driving tasks.
Our research on automotive domain was easily exploited for military aviation, in particular for fast jets. We have an operational flight simulator in our lab, which is integrated to a Multimodal Gaze Controlled HUD. We invented new target prdiction technologies for eye gaze and finger movement tracking systems to reduce pointing and selection times in the HUD. The HUD can also be integrated to Brain Computer and Voice controlled systems and we have also integrated a gaze controlled system with a high-end flight simulator at the National Aerospace Laboratory. Our research is currently optimizing input and output modalities for different mission control tasks.
We also actively pursue research on Assistive Technology and work with spastic children. Earlier, we investigated† eye-gaze tracking data from people with visual impairment, audiogram data from people with hearing impairment and hand strength data from people with motor impairment and developed the inclusive user modelling system to promote inclusive design of electronic interfaces. The system found applications in a wide variety of systems including a digital TV framework for elderly users, a weather monitoring system, Augmentative and Alternative Communication Aid for spastic children, an electronic agricultural advisory system and a smartphone based emergency warning system.
With a funding from Microsoft Research and a DST SERB early career fellowship, we are now developing gaze controlled assistive systems for students with severe speech and motor impairment. Our initial study found significant difference in visual search patterns for operating a graphical user interface between users with cerebral palsy and their able bodied counterpart. Presently we are developing and evaluating gaze controlled intelligent user interfaces for augmentative and alternative communication aid and edutainment systems.
With a seed funding from Bosch, we initiated research on smart manufacturing. Presently we are developing IoT modules for environment and posture tracking. We have developed a visualization module that displays both spatial and temporal data and by holding a semi-transparent screen in front of an electronic screen, a user can augment spatial information with temporal trend or vice versa. The system also supports interaction through an interactive laser pointer, AR based Android application and is integrated to an early warning system that automatically sends a Gmail if it senses any deviation in sensor readings in the contexts of environment tracking.
We are developing a PCB (printed circuit board) inspection system that can detect correct orientation and type of IC chips using a webcam thorough shape detection algorithms. It is also integrated with a projection system to indicate the correct position of the IC in a PCB. The project is part of a bigger work on comparing different shape detection features and algorithms in cluttered background under different lighting conditions and camera resolutions.
We have worked with a local start-up company to develop technology for helping cricket players and coaches. We validated a bespoke wireless IMU sensor attached to a cricket bat developed by StanceBeam using Optitrack Flex 13 camera system. We compared both orientation and speed of a cricket bat while executing shots using StanceBeam IMU sensor and Optitrack system. Later we tried to simultaneously track eye gaze of a batsman and integrate measurements of bat and eye gaze movements together.
2. JeevithaShree DV, KPS Saluja, LRD Murthy and P. Biswas, Operating different displays in military fast jets using eye gaze tracker, Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering 8(1), Purdue University Press
3. G. Prabhakar and P. Biswas, Eye Gaze Controlled Projected Display in Automotive and Military Aviation Environments. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 2(1)
4. P. Biswas and G. Prabhakar, Detecting Driversí Cognitive Load from Saccadic Intrusion, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 54, Elsevier
5. P. Biswas and Jeevithashree DV, Analysing ocular parameters of users with cerebral palsy for developing gaze controlled interface, EC Ophthalmology 8(5)
6. N. Blow and P. Biswas, A pointing facilitation system for motor-impaired users combining polynomial smoothing and time weighted gradient target prediction models, Assistive Technology 29 (1), ISSN: 1040-0435, Taylors and Francis, 2016
1. Biswas P., Deshmukh S., Prabhakar G., Modiksha M., Sharma V. K. and Ramakrishnan A., A System for Man- Machine Interaction in Vehicles, Indian Patent Application No.: 201941009219
2. P. Biswas, Interactive Gaze Controlled Projected Display, Indian Patent Application No.: 201641037828
3. G. Prabhakar and P. Biswas, Wearable Laser Pointer for Automotive User Interface, Application No.: 201741035044, PCT International Application No. PCT/IB2018/057680
1. P.Biswas and P. O. Looms, From disability to capability: strategies for reconciling solutions for all, Encyclopaedia of Computer Science and Technology (2nd Edition), Taylor and Francis
2. P. Biswas and P. Langdon, Applications of Intelligent and Multimodal Eye Gaze Controlled Interfaces, Wiley Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
3. P. Biswas and M. Springett, Inclusive User Modelling, Wiley Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction
1. A. Mukhopadhyay, A. Agarwal, I. Mukherjee and P. Biswas, Performance Comparison of Different CNN models for Indian Road Dataset, 3rd International Conference on Graphics and Signal Processing (ICGSP 2019)
2. KPS Saluja, Jeevithashree Dv, S. Arjun and P. Biswas, Analyzing Eye Gaze Movement of Users with Different Reading Abilities due to Learning Disability, 3rd International Conference on Graphics and Signal Processing (ICGSP 2019)
3. LRD Murthy, S. Arjun and P. Biswas, Smart Sensor Dashboard, International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Artificial Intelligence Technologies (INAIT) 2019
4. M D Babu, JeevithaShree DV, G. Prabhakar and P. Biswas, Using Eye Gaze Tracker to Automatically Estimate Pilotsí Cognitive Load, 50th International Symposium of the Society for Flight Test Engineer (SFTE)
5. M D Babu, P. Biswas, G. Prabhakar, JeevithaShree DV and LRD Murthy, Eye Gaze Tracking in Military Aviation, Indian Air Force AVIAMAT 2018
6. A. Agarwal, JeevithaShree DV, K S Saluja, A Sahay, P Mounika, A Sahu, R Bhaumik, V K Rajendran and P. Biswas, Comparing Two Webcam based Eye Gaze Trackers for Users with Severe Speech and Motor Impairment,† International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2019) [Distinguished Paper Award]
7. A. Mukhopadhyay, LRD Murthy, M. Arora,† A. Chakrabarti, I. Mukherjee and P. Biswas, PCB Inspection in the context of Smart Manufacturing,† International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2019)
8. P. Mounika, D. Karia D., K. Sharma K., and P. Biswas, Accessibility evaluation of three important Indian websites, International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2019)
9. G. Prabhakar, N. Madhu and P. Biswas, Comparing Pupil Dilation, Head Movement, and EEG for Distraction Detection of Drivers, Proceedings of the 32nd British Human Computer Interaction Conference 2018 (British HCI 18)
10.S. Arjun, Personalizing data visualization and interaction, ACM International conference on User Modeling and Adaptive Personalization (UMAP 2018) Doctoral Consortium
11.Jeevithashree DV, K. P. Saluja and P. Biswas, Gaze Controlled Interface for Limited Mobility Environment, ACM International Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) 2018
12.P. Biswas and Jeevithashree DV, Eye Gaze Controlled MFD for Military Aviation, ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) 2018 (Acceptance rate 23%)
13.A. Sahay and P. Biswas, Webcam based eye gaze tracking using a landmark detector, ACM Compute 2017, Annual Conference of ACM India
14.G. Prabhakar and P. Biswas, Interaction Design and Distraction Detection in Automotive UI, ACM Automotive UI Doctoral Consortium (ACM AutomotiveUI 2017)
15.P. Biswas, G. Prabhakar, J. Rajesh, K. Pandit and A. Halder, Improving Eye Gaze Controlled Car Dashboard using Simulated Annealing, Proceedings of the 31st British Human Computer Interaction Conference (British HCI 17)
16.P. Biswas, S. Twist and S. Godsill, Intelligent Finger Movement Controlled Interface for Automotive Environment, Proceedings of the 31st British Human Computer Interaction Conference 2017 (British HCI 17)
17.P. Biswas, S. Roy, G. Prabhakar, J. Rajesh, S. Arjun, M. Arora, B. Gurumoorthy and A. Chakrabarti, Interactive Sensor Visualization for Smart Manufacturing System, Proceedings of the 31st British Human Computer Interaction Conference 2017 (British HCI 17)
18.G. Prabhakar and P. Biswas, Evaluation of Laser Pointer as a Pointing Device in Automotive, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies [Best Paper Award]
19.J. Rajesh and P. Biswas, Eye-gaze tracker as input modality for Military Aviation Environment, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies
20.P.Biswas, A. Halder, K. Maheswary and S. Arjun, Inclusive Personlization of User Interfaces, 6th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2017)
21.P. Biswas, Multimodal Gaze Controlled Dashboard, ACM AutomotiveUI 2016
22.G. Tyson, J. Bigham, E. L. Bodanese, N. Akhtar, P. Biswas, P. Langdon, V. Mimrot, P. Mukhopadhyay and V. Ribeiro, Designing an Adaptive Emergency Warning System for Heterogeneous Environments, IEEE 27th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications -(PIMRC): Services Applications and Business (IEEE PIMRC 2016 SAB)
23.G. Prabhakar, J. Rajesh and P.Biswas, Comparision of three Hand Movement Tracking Sensors as Cursor Controllers, IEEE International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication & Computational Technologies (ICCICCT-2016) [Best Paper Award)
24.K. Maheswary, S. Arjun and P. Biswas, Inclusive Crowd Sourcing based Disaster Reporting System, International Conference on Control, IEEE Instrumentation, Communication & Computational Technologies (ICCICCT-2016)